The act of engaging in trade serves as the fundamental support system for a prosperous economy, and the legal structure governing trade transactions holds significant significance in establishing a favorable climate for business operations. In the jurisdiction of Bangladesh, it is imperative to acknowledge the significance of the Commercial Transactions Act as a pivotal legal instrument that establishes the fundamental framework for the facilitation of seamless and transparent commercial transactions.

The present discourse delves into the complexities surrounding the Commercial Transactions Act of Bangladesh, meticulously scrutinizing its fundamental provisions and their consequential ramifications on commercial enterprises and interested parties.

Background and Access to Force

Legislative Foundation

Brief Description of the Act: The Commercial Transactions Act was duly enacted in the jurisdiction of Bangladesh with the primary objective of effectuating a modernized and streamlined legal framework pertaining to diverse facets of commercial transactions. The aforementioned legislation serves to consolidate and contemporize the statutes pertaining to contracts, negotiable instruments, and sundry commercial affairs.

Adoption of International Best Practices: The aforementioned Act demonstrates a steadfast dedication to the adoption of internationally recognized best practices, while simultaneously offering lucidity and assurance in matters pertaining to commercial transactions. Furthermore, it serves to harmonize Bangladesh’s legal framework with prevailing global standards.

Necessary provisions of law relating to commercial transactions

A. Agreement

Formation and Validity: As per the legal framework, contracts are subject to specific criteria and prerequisites that must be satisfied in order to establish and uphold their formation and enforceability. The aforementioned statement elucidates the aspects of offer and acceptance, consideration, and performance pertaining to the parties engaged in commercial transactions.

Performance and Termination: The provisions pertaining to the performance and termination of the contract serve the purpose of ensuring that all parties involved possess a clear comprehension of their respective obligations and the potential ramifications that may arise in the event of non-compliance.

B. Negotiable Instruments

Promissory Notes and Bills of Exchange: The legal framework governs negotiable instruments, encompassing promissory notes and bills of exchange. The aforementioned provisions delineate the legal entitlements and responsibilities of the involved parties in said instruments, thereby facilitating seamless execution of financial transactions.

Checks and Electronic Instruments: The aforementioned Act incorporates provisions that pertain to the utilization of checks and electronic instruments, with the intention of accommodating contemporary practices and acknowledging the dynamic characteristics of commercial transactions.

C. Electronic transactions

Legal recognition: The law welcomes the digital age and ensures legal recognition of electronic transactions. The aforementioned statement acknowledges the legal recognition accorded to electronic contracts and signatures, thereby fostering the growth and facilitation of electronic commerce and the adoption of digital business practices.

Security and Authentication: The provisions pertaining to electronic transactions encompass various measures aimed at guaranteeing the security and authentication of electronic records, as well as bolstering trust and reliability in the realm of online commerce.


Performance and Breach

Performance standards: The legal framework establishes criteria for the execution of contractual duties, encompassing stipulations regarding temporal parameters and benchmarks for quality assurance. The aforementioned clarity serves to mitigate the occurrence of conflicts arising from misunderstandings pertaining to performance expectations.

BREACH OF CONTRACT AND REMEDIES: In the event of a breach of contract, the legal framework affords the aggrieved party with available remedies. The aforementioned encompasses remuneration and particularized provisions that conduce to equitable resolution of conflicts.

International commercial transactions

Border transactions

Applicability: The aforementioned Act duly attends to the legal facets pertaining to international commercial transactions and effectively guarantees that enterprises engaged in cross-border business activities are provided with a lucid legal structure to adhere to.

Uniform application: In matters of pertinence, the legal framework is informed by international conventions and treaties, with the aim of fostering consistency and foreseeability in the adjudication of disputes arising from international transactions.

Dispute Resolution Procedures

Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR)

Promotion of ADR: The Act encourages the use of alternative dispute resolution methods such as arbitration and mediation. This approach speeds up dispute resolution and reduces the burden on the traditional court system.

Enforceability of Arbitral Awards: Arbitral awards arising out of ADR proceedings are recognized and enforceable under law, ensuring parties choose alternative methods for resolving commercial disputes.

Consent and challenge

Consent Requirements

Education and Implementation: Companies need to be aware of the provisions of the Commercial Transactions Act to ensure compliance. Regular updating and training programs are essential for effective implementation of the law.

Adaptation to Technological Change: Continuous adaptation to technological change is required, especially in the context of electronic transactions. Organizations should implement secure and compliant electronic systems to comply with the provisions of the Act

Future perspectives and recommendations

Law Update

Periodic Review: Periodic review and updates of commercial transaction laws are important to address emerging challenges and adapt to evolving business practices.

Global Harmonization: Efforts should be made to harmonize legislation with international trade laws, promote global harmonization and enable smooth cross-border transactions.


In conclusion, the Commercial Transactions Act in Bangladesh provides the basis for promoting transparent, efficient and legally sound commercial transactions. By providing a comprehensive legal framework, the Act contributes to the growth and stability of the business landscape in Bangladesh.

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