Credit transaction in Bangladesh

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In the matter at hand, it is imperative to acknowledge that a Credit transaction involving a Letter of Credit (LC) encompasses various stages, each of which bears significant importance in guaranteeing a safe and effective transfer of goods and remuneration between the involved parties.

Typically, the following delineates the sequential stages involved in the issuance of a letter of credit transaction:

  • The aforementioned parties have reached a mutual agreement regarding the terms and conditions at hand.
  • The document commonly referred to as the letter of credit (LoC) is duly issued by a financial institution, specifically a bank, with which the two aforementioned parties are engaged in commercial Credit transactions.
  • The subsequent course of action pertains to the factual undertaking of a Credit transaction (for instance, the conveyance of merchandise).
  • Upon the fulfillment of said condition, it is the bank’s responsibility to effectuate the settlement of payments at the seller’s designated location.
  • Upon reaching the ultimate stage of the Credit transaction, it is within the buyer’s purview to assume control and ownership of the acquired goods.

Types of Credit transaction letters

These are some main types of letter of credit

  • Credit letter confirmation/unconfirmation

The confirmed letter of credit can be understood as an additional form of insurance, which operates in conjunction with an extant letter of credit provided by a bank.

The present document may be issued by a distinct financial institution, serving as a guarantor, thereby ensuring the timely payment of funds in the event that the initial bank fails to fulfill its obligation in this regard. In the context of an unconfirmed letter of credit, it is imperative to note that the responsibility for guaranteeing the Credit transaction lies solely with a singular financial institution.

  • Credit-revolving letter

A revolving letter of credit, herein referred to as “RLC,” is a legally binding instrument that confers upon a customer the privilege to engage in multiple Credit transactions within a specified time period, thereby obviating the need to procure individual letters of credit for each Credit transaction. This letter of credit provides substantial convenience to the esteemed customer of the bank.

  • Standby credit letter

The acronym SBLC, which stands for Standby Letter of Credit, serves as a mechanism to guarantee that the seller shall receive payment from the bank, should the buyer (i.e., the client of the bank) find themselves in a circumstance where they are incapable of adhering to the mutually agreed upon terms. It is of utmost significance within the realm of trade, as it serves to safeguard the contractual provisions.

  • Unrevocable credit letter

The irrevocable letter of credit serves as an unequivocal and binding assurance of remuneration to the party selling goods or services. It is to be understood that the seller shall be entitled to receive the full and rightful amount owed by the buyer, regardless of any circumstances that may arise.

Modifying the irrevocable letter of credit presents a formidable challenge, as it necessitates the unanimous concurrence of all three parties involved. The aforementioned distinction arises between the subject matter at hand and its corresponding alternative, namely, the revocable letter of credit. The aforementioned statement posits that a revocable letter of credit is characterized by its capacity for modification of terms and conditions by the issuing bank.

  • Red clause credit letter

The Red Clause letter of credit can be characterized, in the most basic sense, as a form of advance, as the nominated bank undertakes the responsibility of making a payment in advance to the seller. The nomenclature in question derives from the verity that the aforementioned document encompasses a stipulation or provision (frequently accentuated in the color red) that confers the requisite authorization for said action.

International letter of credit laws

In light of the potential for substantial confusion surrounding the regulations pertaining to letters of credit, it has come to pass that certain rules have been formulated by the International Chamber of Commerce.

The majority of letters of credit employed in commercial Credit transactions are subject to the regulations known as the Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits. The extant iteration of regulations, commonly referred to as UCP 600, was promulgated in the year 2007.

Letter of credit requirements

The necessity for the procurement of a letter of credit arises from the inherent unpredictability and lack of certainty that characterizes commercial Credit transaction. In the contemporary era of pervasive interconnectivity, one encounters considerable challenges in ascertaining the authenticity of a prospective purchaser and their ability to fulfill their contractual obligations.

Sellers may express apprehension regarding the dispatch of goods to a geographical location wherein they possess no dominion or sway. The utilization of a letter of credit effectively addresses and resolves the aforementioned issues in a satisfactory manner.

Why use Letter of Credit

There exist numerous justifications for the utilization of letters of credit, with paramount importance placed upon the aspects of security and convenience. The aforementioned payment method serves to mitigate potential risks for sellers, as it guarantees the receipt of payment and is comparably straightforward to obtain. In addition to the primary objective of guaranteeing payment, it is worth noting that the letter of credit serves the purpose of effectively overseeing cash flows and verifying the financial stability of the buyer.

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