Foreign Exchange Management Act in Bangladesh

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The Foreign Exchange Management Act (FEMA), which is an important component throughout the process, has a large amount of impact on the foreign exchange environment in Bangladesh. When it comes to the nation’s economic policy, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).

which was founded to regulate transactions using foreign Exchange money, is an essential component. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is the subject of this article, which delves into the basic aspects of the agency, including its objectives, regulatory structure, and the impact it has on businesses and individuals that engage in transactions with foreign currencies.

Understanding the Objectives of FEMA

A. Ensuring Foreign Exchange Stability

  1. Preserving Currency Value: The major aim of the Financial and Economic Management Agency, sometimes known as FEMA, is to exert control over transactions that involve money from sources outside the United States. The purpose of this action is to guarantee that the Bangladeshi Taka will continue to behave in a consistent manner throughout the course of time.

    The elimination of fluctuations in the value of currencies and the creation of an atmosphere that is suitable to doing business on a global scale are both made simpler as a result of this. These two results are both favorable to the functioning of international trade.
  2. Balancing Payment Accounts: Therefore, it is possible to achieve this purpose as a consequence of the law since it makes it easier to maintain the equilibrium of the country’s balance of payments, which is an essential component of maintaining the stability of the economy.

    The management of transactions that include Foreign Exchange currency is the means by which this objective is realized. Specifically, this is the manner in which this transpires.

Regulatory Framework of FEMA

A. Bangladesh Bank’s Authority

  1. Central Bank Oversight: The Bangladesh Bank, as the central bank of Bangladesh, is entrusted with the authority to implement and enforce FEMA regulations. It formulates policies and guidelines to govern foreign exchange transactions.
  2. Authorized Dealers: As the central bank of Bangladesh, the Bangladesh Bank has been given the responsibility of putting into effect and implementing the laws that have been developed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). This responsibility has been handed to the Bangladesh Bank. The establishment of regulations and procedures is the responsibility of this organization, with the objective of regulating transactions that involve Foreign Exchange money.

Key Components of FEMA

A. Capital Transactions

  1. Capital Account Transactions: A wide range of capital operations, including as investments, borrowings, and the return of cash, are all subject to the oversight of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), which is responsible for controlling these activities.

    Also, the Federal Emergency Management Agency is in charge of additional capital operations. people and organizations are needed to conform with a set of regulations that have been created by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) in order to take part in these activities. These rules allow for the participation of people and organizations.
  2. Foreign Investment: The act, which is responsible for regulating Foreign Exchange investment in Bangladesh at the national level, defines these procedures for approval, repatriation of profits, and compliance with investment limitations.

    These procedures for approval and compliance with investment restrictions are described in the act. In addition to that, the Act has rules that mandate compliance with investment limitations.

B. Current Account Transactions

  1. Trade Transactions: Trade-related current account transactions, such as the import and export of goods and services, are under the supervision of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). During the course of these transactions, it guarantees conformity with the legislation governing Foreign Exchange currency.
  2. Remittances: The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) requires individuals and organizations that send money overseas or receive money from overseas to conform with its standards. This helps to create an ecosystem that is both transparent and controlled about remittances.

FEMA and Business Operations

A. Import and Export Guidelines

  1. Trade Financing: The issuance of letters of credit, the administration of export income, and the settlement of import payments are all examples of procedures that fall within the purview of the laws that FEMA has established for trade finance. Every single one of these acts is something that businesses who take part in international trade are obligated to comply with.
  2. Documentation Requirements: The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) mandates that specific documentation be submitted for import and export transactions. This is done with the intention of ensuring that international trade is conducted in a transparent manner and in line with applicable regulations.

FEMA Compliance for Individuals

A. Personal Remittances

  1. Remittance Limits: Individuals who are making personal remittances, such as payments for school tuition or transactions linked to travel, are expected to do so in order to comply with the restrictions and paperwork requirements that have been set by FEMA. This is the case in order to ensure that they are in compliance with the regulations.
  2. Non-Resident Accounts: Under the criteria that FEMA has developed for non-resident accounts, individuals who are living outside of the United States are permitted to retain their accounts in foreign currencies, and the repatriation of funds is made simpler as a result of these guidelines.

Challenges and Evolving Trends

A. Compliance Challenges

  1. Awareness and Education: A lack of knowledge often presents difficulties in terms of complying with the requirements set out by FEMA. In order to guarantee universal comprehension and adherence, one of the most important roles that education and awareness initiatives play is to play.
  2. Technological Integration: The use of technology into transactions involving foreign currency presents both obstacles and possibilities simultaneously. Making adjustments to accommodate technology changes while maintaining compliance with regulations and security standards is a constant concern.

Future Outlook and Recommendations

A. Regulatory Clarity

  1. Communication and Guidance: Clarity on FEMA laws may be improved by consistent communication and advice from regulatory agencies, such as the Bangladesh Bank. This can help reduce ambiguity and increase compliance with the requirements.
  2. Periodic Review: It is vital for the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to conduct periodic reviews and revisions of its rules in order to handle new difficulties, meet worldwide best practices, and accommodate changes in the economic environment.


With its regulatory structure and purposes, the Foreign Exchange Management Act in Bangladesh plays a significant role in creating the landscape of foreign exchange.

In conclusion, this act plays a critical function. Compliance with FEMA laws promotes a stable and transparent environment for foreign currency, which is essential for companies and people as they manage the complexity of international transactions.

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