Private mergers and acquisitions in Bangladesh

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Private mergers and acquisitions transactions pertain to the amalgamation or procurement of commercial enterprises by non-public entities, conducted beyond the scope of publicly traded stock markets.

In the jurisdiction of Bangladesh, it is imperative to acknowledge that the aforementioned transactions are bound by a comprehensive legal framework and are subject to rigorous regulatory oversight. The primary objective of such measures is to guarantee utmost transparency, equity, and safeguard the interests of all stakeholders involved.

Regulatory Structure of mergers and acquisitions

A Companies Act, 1994

The aforementioned statement asserts that the Companies Act of 1994 holds jurisdiction over corporate entities within the borders of Bangladesh and assumes a pivotal position in the realm of private mergers and acquisitions. The legal foundation for transactions of mergers, acquisitions, and the treatment of shareholders is established through the inclusion of specific provisions.

b. The Securities and Exchange Commission of Bangladesh (SEC)

While it is true that private M&A transactions do not require public disclosure, it is important to note that the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) maintains jurisdiction over regulatory compliance matters and diligently ensures that such transactions adhere to established corporate governance standards. Pursuant to certain circumstances surrounding private mergers and acquisitions (M&A) transactions, it may be necessary to seek counsel and obtain approval from the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).

Legal framework for M&A

A. Asset Purchase vs. Share Purchase

In the jurisdiction of Bangladesh, it is pertinent to note that private mergers and acquisitions (M&A) may be structured as either asset purchases or share purchases. In the context of an asset purchase, it is the buyer who assumes ownership of specific assets and associated liabilities belonging to the target company. The transaction at hand pertains to the procurement of the complete share capital of the aforementioned target entity, encompassing all of its assets and liabilities.

b. Due Diligence

The diligent and comprehensive execution of due diligence constitutes a crucial and indispensable measure within the framework of the merger and acquisition (M&A) procedure. The purchasers duly assess the legal, financial, and operational facets of the subject entity. The practice of due diligence serves the purpose of discerning potential risks, liabilities, and opportunities, thereby enabling the involved parties to make well-informed and prudent decisions.

Valuation and pricing

The valuation of the target company holds significant importance in private mergers and acquisitions transactions. The utilization of various valuation methodologies, including but not limited to discounted cash flow (DCF), comparable company analysis (CCA), and precedent transactions, is undertaken with the objective of determining a just and mutually acceptable valuation.

Transaction Agreement

A. Memorandum of Understanding (MOU)

The Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) functions as a preliminary agreement that delineates the fundamental terms of the merger and acquisition (M&A) transaction. Although lacking legal enforceability, it establishes the structure for discussions and signifies the parties’ intention to proceed with the agreement.

b. Share Purchase Agreement (SPA)

The Share Purchase Agreement (SPA) is a legally binding and exhaustive document that meticulously delineates the precise terms and conditions governing the acquisition of shares. The aforementioned document encompasses the agreed-upon monetary value of the acquisition, the assertions and guarantees made by the parties involved.

the prerequisites that must be fulfilled prior to the execution of the agreement, and the specific terms and provisions that establish a legally enforceable structure for the transaction.

c. Asset Purchase Agreement (APA)

In the context of asset purchases, it is important to note that Asset Purchase Agreements (APAs) serve analogous purposes to Share Purchase Agreements (SPAs). However, it is crucial to highlight that APAs primarily concentrate on the transfer of particular assets and liabilities.

The aforementioned agreement duly delineates the precise extent of the asset, the apportionment of the purchase price, and any and all conditions or obligations that are inherently linked to the transfer of said asset.

Regulatory approval

Certain mergers and acquisitions (M&A) transactions may necessitate the procurement of regulatory approvals from the pertinent authorities. In the event that the target company is engaged in operations within a regulated industry.

it is plausible that the execution of the transaction may necessitate the procurement of consent from regulatory entities that are specific to the sector, in order to bring the transaction to its culmination.

Employee Considerations

The careful and diligent consideration of employees holds utmost importance in the context of mergers and acquisitions (M&A) transactions. It is incumbent upon employers to diligently comply with all applicable labor laws and regulations, thereby guaranteeing a seamless and orderly transition for their valued employees.

The successful integration process is contingent upon the adherence to legal requirements, as well as the facilitation of communication and transparency.

Tax implications

It is of utmost importance for both the purchaser and the vendor to possess a comprehensive comprehension of the tax ramifications associated with mergers and acquisitions transactions.

Tax planning and compliance with the relevant tax laws serve to ensure that the transaction is strategically organized in a manner that maximizes tax efficiency and mitigates potential legal obligations.

Integration after merger

In the context of a merger, a post-merger merger refers to the process of amalgamating the operations, systems, and cultures of the merged entity. The efficient planning and execution of integration holds paramount importance in order to actualize synergies, mitigate disruption, and guarantee a smooth transition for all parties involved.

Dispute resolution process

It is advisable and prudent to include provisions for dispute resolution within the context of mergers and acquisitions contracts. Arbitration, also known as Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR), encompasses a meticulously organized approach to settling disputes that may potentially arise subsequent to a transaction, thereby circumventing protracted and contentious legal proceedings.

Challenges in Private M&A

A. Cultural integration

In the context of a multifaceted commercial environment, the process of assimilating different cultures presents certain obstacles and complexities. The merging entities may potentially possess disparate corporate cultures, work styles, and communication norms.

It is imperative to duly acknowledge and address the cultural disparities in order to foster a congenial and cohesive atmosphere subsequent to the merger and acquisition process.

b. Regulatory uncertainty

The potential alterations within the regulatory framework have the capacity to impact mergers and acquisitions transactions. It is possible that unforeseen regulatory obstacles or uncertainties may present themselves, necessitating the implementation of flexible strategies and proactive involvement with regulatory authorities.

Future trends

In light of the evolving business environment in Bangladesh, it is anticipated that future trends shall emerge in the realm of private mergers and acquisitions (M&A) transactions. The nature and frequency of M&A activities in the future will be subject to influence from technological advances, sector-specific developments, and global economic changes.


In conclusion, it is imperative to acknowledge that private mergers and acquisitions within the jurisdiction of Bangladesh are intricate undertakings that necessitate meticulous deliberation, strict compliance with legal frameworks, and astute anticipation of future circumstances.

In order to unlock growth and establish sustainable value, it is imperative for businesses engaged in mergers and acquisitions to accord utmost priority to the diligent examination of pertinent matters, adherence to legal requirements, and the efficient integration of operations subsequent to the transaction.

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