Bangladesh domestic and international trade laws

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In light of the prosperous condition of Bangladesh’s economy, it is imperative to duly acknowledge the indispensable character of a comprehensive legal framework in effectively governing and overseeing both domestic and international trade endeavors within the nation.

The aforementioned trade laws serve as a pivotal catalyst in the promotion of economic expansion, the safeguarding of equitable commercial conduct, and the facilitation of seamless global transactions. The current discussion will explore the complex intricacies of the domestic and international trade laws of Bangladesh, thereby clarifying the fundamental regulations that govern international trade activities within the country and extend beyond its borders.

Domestic Trade Laws

A. Trade Organizations Ordinance, 1961

  1. Formation of Trade Organizations: The Trade Organizations Ordinance of 1961 serves as the established legal framework governing the establishment and governance of trade organizations within the jurisdiction of Bangladesh. The aforementioned organizations function as indispensable entities that serve as representatives for diverse sectors and industries.
  2. Functions and Responsibilities: The aforementioned ordinance duly delineates the various functions and obligations bestowed upon trade organizations, thereby endowing them with the authority to actively contribute towards the advancement and advocacy of trade endeavors within the territorial boundaries of the nation.

B. Consumer Rights Protection Act, 2009

  1. Consumer Protection: The aforementioned legislation, namely the Consumer Rights Protection Act of 2009, is primarily concerned with the preservation and defense of the legal entitlements bestowed upon consumers within the realm of domestic commerce. The aforementioned provisions serve to establish and implement effective mechanisms aimed at redressing grievances, guaranteeing the utmost standards of product quality, and proactively preventing any instances of unfair trade practices.
  2. Business Obligations: Pursuant to the provisions set forth in the aforementioned act, it is incumbent upon businesses to dutifully conform to said provisions, which encompass the imperative disclosure of comprehensive product information, the equitable establishment of pricing, and the assumption of responsibility for ensuring product safety.

International Trade Laws

A. Import Policy Order

  1. Regulating Imports: The aforementioned Import Policy Order delineates the legal framework and stipulations that govern the importation of commodities into the sovereign territory of Bangladesh. The aforementioned provisions encompass matters pertaining to licensing, proscribed imports, and limitations on specific commodities.
  2. Promoting Trade Balance: The aforementioned policy is designed with the objective of fostering a trade balance that is advantageous by means of overseeing the influx of commodities and guaranteeing compliance with established international trade standards.

B. Export Policy Order

  1. Export Regulations: In a manner akin to the Import Policy Order, the Export Policy Order governs and controls the process of exporting goods from the sovereign nation of Bangladesh. The aforementioned document offers comprehensive guidance pertaining to matters of licensing, export restrictions, and promotional endeavors aimed at augmenting the exportation of goods and services.
  2. Incentivizing Exports: The aforementioned order encompasses stipulations pertaining to export incentives, thereby promoting and incentivizing businesses to engage in the exploration of international markets, thereby making valuable contributions to the overall economic growth of the nation.

Customs Act, 1969

A. Customs Procedures

  1. Tariff Classification: The aforementioned statement asserts that the Customs Act of 1969 is the governing legislation that presides over customs procedures, encompassing the vital aspect of goods classification for the purpose of tariff determination. The utilization of Harmonized System (HS) codes serves the purpose of maintaining uniformity in the classification of goods for customs purposes.
  2. Valuation and Assessment: The aforementioned act duly establishes and prescribes meticulous procedures for the comprehensive valuation and assessment of goods that are imported into or exported from a given jurisdiction. The primary purpose of such procedures is to effectively safeguard against any potential instances of under-invoicing or misdeclaration, thereby ensuring the utmost integrity and accuracy in the valuation and assessment of said goods.

Anti-Dumping and Countervailing Duties Act, 2012

A. Preventing Unfair international Trade Practices

  1. Safeguarding Domestic Industries: The aforementioned legislation, namely the Anti-Dumping and Countervailing Duties Act of 2012, has been enacted with the primary objective of safeguarding domestic industries against any form of international trade practices that are deemed to be unjust or inequitable. The aforementioned provisions establish mechanisms by which obligations may be imposed upon imported commodities in order to counterbalance the adverse consequences resulting from the practice of dumping or the provision of subsidies.
  2. Investigation Process: The aforementioned act delineates the procedural framework for the examination and ascertainment of the necessity to levy anti-dumping or countervailing duties as a means to redress instances of inequitable competition.

Challenges and Adaptations

A. E-Commerce Regulations

  1. Emerging Challenges: The burgeoning emergence of electronic commerce poses formidable obstacles with respect to regulatory measures. The ongoing evolution of the legal framework necessitates consistent adjustments to effectively tackle matters pertaining to online transactions, data protection, and consumer rights within the digital domain.
  2. Regulatory Updates: It is imperative to recognize that the perpetually changing nature of international trade and commerce necessitates the ongoing modification of extant laws and the implementation of novel regulations.

Future Directions and Recommendations

A. Regional and Bilateral Agreements

  1. Strengthening Ties: The participation of Bangladesh in regional and bilateral international trade agreements serves to significantly bolster its global economic integration. By enhancing the bonds between parties involved and engaging in negotiations to secure advantageous conditions, it is possible to create opportunities for the expansion of international commerce.
  2. Harmonization of Standards: The harmonization of domestic standards with internationally recognized norms serves to enhance the efficiency and efficacy of cross-border trade operations. It is imperative that diligent endeavors be undertaken to achieve a state of harmonization within regulatory frameworks and foster an environment that is conducive to the conduct of business activities.


In conclusion, it is of utmost importance to duly recognize that the domestic and international trade laws of Bangladesh function as a fundamental bedrock for the facilitation and regulation of economic undertakings, encompassing activities within the confines of the nation’s borders as well as those conducted in the global sphere. Given the dynamic nature of the business landscape, it is crucial that the legal framework undergoes appropriate modifications to adequately tackle emerging challenges, promote fair practices, and foster a resilient and sustainable trade environment.

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