Foreign exchange market law in Bangladesh

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The foreign exchange market holds utmost significance within the economic framework of Bangladesh, as it serves as a vital conduit for facilitating various aspects of international trade, investments, and remittances. In the realm of foreign exchange market operations, it is imperative to acknowledge the presence of a comprehensive and resilient legal framework.

This framework diligently oversees and regulates the various facets of the market, thereby upholding principles of transparency, stability, and adherence to internationally recognized standards. The present discourse undertakes a comprehensive exploration of the legal terrain governing the foreign exchange market in Bangladesh, elucidating pivotal statutes, regulations, and their attendant ramifications.

Bangladesh Bank Order, 1972

A. Establishment and Authority

  1. Central Bank Oversight: The aforementioned Bangladesh Bank Order of 1972 duly establishes the Bangladesh Bank as the preeminent central banking institution within the jurisdiction of the country. The aforementioned provision confers upon the bank the requisite power to oversee and govern the foreign exchange market.
  2. Monetary Policy Control: The aforementioned order confers upon the Bangladesh Bank the authority to develop and execute monetary policies, encompassing matters pertaining to foreign exchange, with the objective of safeguarding comprehensive economic stability.

Foreign exchange market Regulation Act, 1947

A. Legal Foundation

  1. Framework for Transactions: The user’s text is already written in a legal manner, referencing the Foreign Exchange Regulation Act, 1947, as the legal basis for foreign exchange transactions in Bangladesh. No further rewriting is necessary. The document in question delineates the legal provisions and stipulations that govern the acquisition and disposition of international currencies.
  2. Authorization of Dealers: The aforementioned act duly confers authorization upon certain individuals or entities, hereinafter referred to as authorized dealers, to partake in transactions involving foreign exchange, provided that they adhere to the requisite regulatory stipulations.

Bangladesh Bank Guidelines

A. Foreign Exchange Policy

  1. Policy Formulation: The esteemed Bangladesh Bank has promulgated a set of comprehensive guidelines that meticulously delineate and expound upon the foreign exchange policy of our esteemed nation. The aforementioned guidelines pertain to various facets, including but not limited to trade transactions, capital flows, and the management of foreign exchange reserves.
  2. Licensing and Reporting: The aforementioned guidelines set forth the necessary requirements for licensing duly authorized dealers and impose the duty to establish reporting mechanisms in order to ensure transparency and regulatory oversight.

Exchange Control Manuals

A. Operational Guidelines

  1. Detailed Procedures: The Exchange Control Manuals serve as a supplementary resource to the existing legal provisions, providing comprehensive and precise instructions pertaining to the execution of foreign exchange transactions. The party in question offers comprehensive and meticulous guidelines outlining the sequential actions necessary to ensure adherence to all pertinent regulatory obligations.
  2. Amendments and Updates: The aforementioned manuals are susceptible to periodic amendments and updates, which serve the purpose of aligning them with the ever-changing dynamics of the global foreign exchange market, thereby ensuring their continued relevance.

Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism (AML/CFT) Regulations

A. Compliance Framework

  1. Preventing Illicit Activities: The AML/CFT regulations have been established with the primary objective of mitigating the risks associated with money laundering and the financing of terrorism within the foreign exchange market. It is imperative that authorized dealers diligently adhere to the prescribed due diligence measures and promptly report any transactions that arouse suspicion.
  2. Bangladesh Bank Oversight: The esteemed Bangladesh Bank diligently supervises and monitors the meticulous execution of the Anti-Money Laundering and Countering the Financing of Terrorism (AML/CFT) regulations. Its paramount objective is to preserve the unimpeachable integrity of the foreign exchange market and fortify it against any nefarious exploitation for unlawful purposes.

Challenges and Risk Mitigation

A. Exchange Rate Risks

  1. Volatility Management: The legal framework duly acknowledges and accommodates the inherent uncertainties associated with exchange rate fluctuations by authorizing the utilization of financial instruments, specifically forward contracts, for the express purpose of mitigating and managing said risks. This provision serves to assist commercial enterprises in effectively navigating the inherent uncertainties arising from fluctuations in currency exchange rates.
  2. Central Bank Interventions: The Bangladesh Bank, in its commitment to upholding stability and instilling unwavering confidence in the foreign exchange market, conscientiously undertakes interventions aimed at mitigating excessive volatility and achieving currency stabilization.

Future steps and suggestions

A. Integrating Technology

  1. Digital Transformation: In light of the pursuit of technological progress, it is imperative to acknowledge that the utilization of digital platforms and blockchain technology has the potential to significantly augment the efficacy and lucidity of foreign exchange transactions.
  2. Capacity Building: The provision of continuous training and capacity building initiatives for market participants, including authorized dealers, serves to cultivate a comprehensive comprehension of dynamic regulations and promote a compliant foreign exchange ecosystem.


In summation, it is imperative to acknowledge that the foreign exchange market law of Bangladesh stands as an all-encompassing structure meticulously crafted to guarantee the seamless operation of global commerce and monetary dealings. The aforementioned legal instruments, under the vigilant supervision of the esteemed Bangladesh Bank, serve as indispensable mechanisms that ensure the preservation of stability and integrity within the realm of the foreign exchange market.


  1. How does the Bangladesh Bank Order, 1972 affect the forex market?

    The Bangladesh Bank Order of 1972, as previously mentioned, duly establishes the Bangladesh Bank as the central bank. This order confers upon the Bangladesh Bank the necessary authority to effectively regulate and supervise the foreign exchange market, thereby ensuring the maintenance of comprehensive economic stability.
  2. How does the 1947 Foreign currency Regulation Act affect Bangladeshi foreign currency transactions?

    The aforementioned act establishes the requisite legal framework for the execution of foreign exchange transactions, delineating the applicable guidelines and provisions governing the acquisition and disposition of foreign currencies. The aforementioned provision confers the authority upon designated entities, commonly referred to as authorized dealers, to partake in said transactions.
  3. What are Bangladesh Bank’s foreign exchange rules’ main points?

    The guidelines promulgated by Bangladesh Bank encompass a comprehensive scope, addressing matters pertaining to the foreign exchange policy, the requisites for obtaining licenses as authorized dealers, and the establishment of reporting mechanisms to foster transparency and facilitate regulatory oversight.
  4. What role does AML/CFT play in foreign exchange market integrity?

    The AML/CFT regulations have been established with the primary objective of mitigating the risks associated with money laundering and terrorism financing within the foreign exchange market. The adherence to due diligence measures is a requirement imposed upon authorized dealers, who are obligated to comply with such measures. In order to ensure the protection and integrity of the market, the oversight of compliance with these measures is entrusted to Bangladesh Bank.
  5. What actions handle Bangladesh’s foreign currency market exchange rate risks?

    The utilization of financial instruments, specifically forward contracts, is permissible within the confines of the established legal framework. These instruments serve the purpose of mitigating exchange rate risks, thereby facilitating effective risk management. The interventions undertaken by Bangladesh Bank also serve to contribute to the stabilization of the currency and the prevention of undue volatility.

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