Mergers and acquisitions in Bangladesh’s legal framework

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Mergers and acquisitions (M&A) are a powerful instrument for development, restructuring, and expanding into new markets in the changing world of business. There has been a rise in merger and acquisition activity in Bangladesh due to the country’s flourishing economy.

The legal framework of Bangladesh that governs mergers and acquisitions, providing essential guidelines, processes, and things to think about for companies that are going through these life-changing deals.

Legal Basis and Regulatory Authorities

A. Companies Act, 1994

  1. M&A Provisions: The aforementioned statement asserts that the Companies Act of 1994 functions as the principal legal framework governing the process of mergers and acquisitions within the jurisdiction of Bangladesh.

    The aforementioned provisions encompass the legal framework for the consolidation of corporate entities, the unification of business entities through mergers, and the procurement of shares in a manner consistent with applicable laws and regulations.
  2. Approval Processes: The aforementioned act delineates the requisite procedures for the endorsement of mergers and acquisitions, explicitly elucidating the functions of regulatory bodies and the sequential measures entailed in procuring the indispensable authorizations.

B. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)

  1. Regulatory Oversight: The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) assumes a crucial and indispensable role in the regulation of mergers and acquisitions (M&A) by diligently overseeing and enforcing adherence to the pertinent legal obligations, while steadfastly safeguarding the rights and interests of shareholders.
  2. Disclosure Requirements: In accordance with the legal obligations imposed upon companies involved in the process of merging or acquiring other entities, it is imperative that said companies meticulously comply with stringent disclosure mandates. These mandates necessitate the provision of comprehensive and intricate information to both shareholders and stakeholders, which is to be facilitated through the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).

Types of Mergers and Acquisitions

A. Merger

  1. Amalgamation of Companies: A merger, as defined, pertains to the consolidation of two or more corporate entities for the purpose of establishing a novel legal entity or the assimilation of one corporate entity into another. The legal process of merger approval is governed by the provisions set forth in the Companies Act.
  2. Approval Mechanism: The aforementioned approval process entails the diligent pursuit of securing the explicit consent of shareholders, the requisite authorization from regulatory bodies, and the subsequent issuance of a merger certificate by the esteemed Registrar of Joint Stock Companies and Firms.

B. Acquisition of Shares

  1. Purchase of Controlling Stake: In the context of an acquisition, it is pertinent to note that a particular entity, hereinafter referred to as “Company A,” undertakes the action of procuring a majority interest in another entity, hereinafter referred to as “Company B,” thereby assuming control over the latter. The Companies Act, herein referred to as the Act, is the governing legislation that regulates the purchase and transfer of shares within the jurisdiction. It sets forth the legal framework and procedures that must be adhered to in order to effectuate acquisition transactions.
  2. SEC Approval: In order to effectuate acquisitions, it is imperative to obtain the requisite approval from the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). Moreover, it is of utmost importance to adhere to the disclosure requirements in order to guarantee the utmost transparency and equitable transactions.

Corporate Governance and Shareholder Rights

A. Protection of Minority Shareholders

  1. Fair Treatment: The legal framework in place duly guarantees the equitable treatment of minority shareholders in mergers and acquisitions (M&A) transactions. The individual’s rights are duly safeguarded, affording them the opportunity to articulate their perspectives and apprehensions.
  2. Court Approval: In specific instances, it may be necessary to seek the approval of the court for mergers and acquisitions (M&A) transactions in order to duly protect the interests of minority shareholders.

Due Diligence and Regulatory Compliance

A. Due Diligence Process

  1. Comprehensive Review: Prior to embarking upon any mergers and acquisitions endeavors, it is imperative for companies to diligently undertake a thorough and exhaustive examination of the target entity. This examination shall encompass a comprehensive evaluation of the financial, legal, and operational facets pertaining to said entity.
  2. Regulatory Compliance: It is of utmost importance to ensure strict adherence to all regulatory requirements. All discrepancies or legal issues that have been identified during the due diligence process must be promptly and diligently resolved prior to moving forward with the transaction at hand.

Challenges and Mitigation Strategies

A. Regulatory Complexities

  1. Navigating Approval Processes: The intricate nature of approval processes may present certain difficulties. It is imperative for companies to retain the services of legal professionals in order to effectively navigate these processes with utmost efficiency.
  2. Compliance Hurdles: The potential obstacle that may arise is the adherence to rigorous regulatory compliance measures. Engaging in the establishment of a comprehensive compliance strategy and procuring the services of legal counsel can effectively alleviate the potential hazards and liabilities that may arise from non-compliance.

Future Trends and Recommendations

A. Digital Transformation

  1. E-commerce M&As: With the rise of e-commerce, future M&A trends may see increased activities in the digital space. The legal framework should evolve to address the unique challenges and opportunities presented by digital transactions.
  2. Technology Integration: Companies engaging in M&A activities should focus on integrating technology for streamlined processes, including digital due diligence and online regulatory compliance.


In summation, it is imperative to note that mergers and acquisitions within the jurisdiction of Bangladesh are meticulously governed by a formidable legal framework firmly established in the Companies Act of 1994. Furthermore, it is crucial to acknowledge that such activities are vigilantly supervised by the esteemed Securities and Exchange Commission.

In light of the burgeoning trend of businesses in Bangladesh resorting to mergers and acquisitions as a means of achieving strategic expansion, it is imperative to underscore the utmost importance of strict adherence to legal protocols, meticulous due diligence, and unwavering commitment to regulatory compliance.

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